Wednesday, March 21, 2012

American Heart Association

Smoking is linked to lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, other lung diseases, and cancer of the bladder, throat and mouth, kidneys, cervix and pancreas.  According to the American Heart Association, "most adult smokers started smoking when they were preteens or teenagers."  Unfortunately, approximately "60% of American children ages 4 to 11 are exposed to secondhand smoke at home."  Smoking cuts your life expectancy a lot.  On average, "smokers die 13 to 14 years earlier than nonsmokers.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "there are 4,000 chemical components found in cigarettes and 250 of them are harmful to human health."  Smoking makes your life shorter and also dramatically affects your mood.  Smoking can cause you to be "irritable, impatient, hostile, anxious and depressed."  This is a credible source that I will use in my research paper.

American Heart Association. (2011). Smoking: Do you really know the risks? Retrieved from
Alfretta Linnert

"The cigarette warnings would not affect me in any way. I have been smoking for so long that even if i did quit i would probably die from a smoking related disease anyway. When looking at the new warnings, I can see that they are graphic, but so is everything else these days. If the target group of thses new warnings is children, than I am all for them. Smoking is a horrible habit that will only hinder a child's future like it did mine"(A. Linnert, personal communication, Feburary 17, 2012).

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 45.3 million people or 19.3% of all adults in the United States smoke.  More men then women smoke.  In the United States, 23.5% of men smoke where as 17.3% of women smoke.  One out of every five preventable deaths in the U.S. is due to smoking.  When looking at the poverty status, more people who live below the poverty level smoke then people who live above the poverty level.  The more education one has, the less likely they are to smoke.  When looking at race and ethnicity, 31.4% of American Indians/Alaska Natives smoke, 21.0% of whites smoke and 20.6% of blacks smoke.  Most people smoke between the ages of 25 and 64 years old.  About 21.8% of people smoke in the Midwest, 21.0% in the South and 15.9% in the West.  This source gives me good statistics and I will probably incorporate a few of them in my final paper.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Adult cigarette smoking in the United States: 
     Current estimate. Retrieved from

Effects of Warning Labels

According to the Center for Tobacco Policy Research, recent research has shown that warning labels on cigarette boxes give people "greater knowledge about the risks of smoking," they have a "greater negative affect toward smoking cues," they "reduce attractiveness of smoker images and of cigarette packaging," they "reduce intention to purchase cigarettes," and they "increase intention quit rates and actual quit rates."  Warning labels that are most effective are "prominent in size, graphics, color and contrast."  Warning labels effect may be modest but if they help only one person then they are completely worth it.  The warning labels will be more effective if they are designed for a "particular audience" or a "particular goal."  This source has great evidence in the benefits of warning labels so I will definitely use this in my research paper.

Center for Tobacco Policy Research. (2007). Do warning labels work? Lessons from tobacco 
     control. Retrieved from

Interview with Stacy Lewis

Stacy first tried a cigarette when she was eleven years old.  She started smoking on a regular basis when she was fifteen.  Her older sister influenced her to start smoking.  They thought that it would be cool to smoke.  Stacy's entire family smokes so she has grown up around people who smoke, though she says this does not influence her.  Stacy agrees with Carolyn that the new graphic warning labels are a good idea.  However, Stacy isn't quite as convinced as Carolyn that the warning labels will help her to quit.  Stacy has tried to quit smoking twice; the first time she lasted a year and a half and the second time was only three and a half weeks.  She smokes when she's bored, driving or drinking.  If times are particularly stressful and money is a little tight, Stacy will sacrifice some things in order to smoke.  She has had many people suffer from a smoking related disease.  Her grandpa died of lung cancer, her other grandpa had emphysema, and her step mom has high blood pressure and has had a stroke and is currently recovering from a heart attack.  Due to the recent life-threatening heart attack her step mom suffered, Stacy is trying to quit since her step mom is now trying.  Smoking is even affecting Stacy's health.  She has smoker's cough and shortness of breath.

(S. Lewis, personal communication, February 18, 2012)

Interview of Carolyn Freyburgher

Carolyn Freyburgher has been smoking off and on since she was seventeen years old.  She began smoking to fit in.  Her friend and sister introduced smoking to her.  Carolyn's grandma used to smoke and that used to influence her, however no one influences her to smoke anymore.  She believes that the new graphic warning labels are a good idea.  She even thinks that these new labels might make her permanently quit.  Carolyn has tried quitting many times but unfortunately, a stressful situation causes her to start smoking once again.  Smoking really calms her down and helps relieve the stress.  She also likes to smoke when she's having a beer.  Carolyn's grandma had lung cancer due to smoking and she had to watch her grandmother die because of smoking.  Even though smoking is expensive and it took someone she loved, Carolyn continues to smoke.

(C. Freyburgher, personal communication, February 18, 2012)

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Graphic Cigarette Warnings

For the first time in more than 25 years, the U. S. Food & Drug Administration is requiring bigger and more graphic warning labels on cigarette cartons. The intent is to further raise awareness about the consequences of smoking. These new labels aim to "increase awareness of the specific health risks associated with smoking, such as death, addiction, lung disease, cancer, stroke and heart disease; encourage smokers to quit; and empower youth to say no to tobacco." These new labels should remind all smokers in the future of the health risks that will come every time they pick up a pack. The information from this source will be sufficient in my research paper.

U. S. Food & Drug Administration. (2011). Cigarette health warnings. Retrieved from

Bigger Warnings Revealed

According to CNN, along with the new graphic designs, it is said that new warning labels will accompany them on cigarette packs. The new warnings will say such things as, "Cigarettes are addictive"; "Tobacco smoke can harm your children"; Cigarettes cause fatal lung disease"; "Cigarettes cause cancer"; "Smoking can kill you"; and many more. Plus, the phone line 1-800-QUIT-NOW will be placed on the back to let people know who they can call to get help and quit. Cigarette companies are saying that the First Amendment is ignored with these new labels. I believe that the information in this article is sufficient for my research paper.

Young, S. (2011, June 21). FDA reveals bigger, graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. CNN
            Helath. Retrieved from

The Defending of Cigatette Graphic Warning Labels

According to the Family Smoking and Tobacco Control Act, the FDA is requiring all tobacco companies to print large graphic pictures on every one of their cigarette packs to warn people of the risks of smoking. Soon after, this was brought to court and a judge ruled to block this recent step and delay final ruling until further examination. The American Lung Association "has stronlgy urged the Federal Government to appeal the decision." These new labels have shown in recent studies to "reduce smoking and keep nonsmokers from starting." The study has also shown a great reduction in children smokers, which is a main focus. This article will be of great use to me in my research paper.

American Lung Association. (2011, November 10). Defending cigarette graphic warning labels.
          Retrieved from cigarette-

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

The cigarette pack as image: new evidence from tobacco industry documents

It is proven that cigarette packaging design is a critical piece of communication and advertising. Smokers always have a pack of cigarettes on them, they don't just throw the box away after the first cigarette. The pack becomes part of the smoker's image. Plus, there are many different cigarette brands and each smoker has their preferred brand. After smoking for quite a while the smoker becomes loyal to that brand and most likely will never change brands in their lifetime. "Brand image is the factor that distinguishes between cigarettes which is important for young smokers in decision making about brand choice." The packaging design is a more important factor in choosing a brand than the actual taste of the tobacco. I will definately use this article in my research paper.

Wakefield, M., Morley, C., Horan, J.K., Cummings, K. M. (2002). The cigarette pack as image: New
             evidence from tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control. Retrieved from

Graphic cigarette warning labels blocked by judge

According to the Washington Post, U.S. District Judge Richard J. Leon ruled that the FDA has to wait to instill the new cigarette box graphics until further review by the courts. He believes that the graphics will have detrimental effects on the business of cigarette manufacturers. The tobacco companies rejoiced in the decision to delay the FDA's new graphics and warnings. Many associations against smoking have made it very clear in saying the case should be appealed. I like the information from this source and will most likey use it in my research paper.

Stein, R. (2011, November 7). Graphic cigarette warning labels blocked by judge. The Washington 
         Post. Retrieved from

F. D. A. Unveils Proposed Graphic Warning Labels For Cigarette Packs

In 2010, 36 warning label designs were proposed for cigarette cartons. These labels will cover half of the carton's surface and are intended to remind smokers of the dangers and the health risks of smoking.  Reports show that "about 20.6% of the nations of adults, or 46.6 million people, and about 19.5% of high school students, or 3.4 million teenagers, are smokers." It is said that around 440,000 people die each year due to tobacco causing health complications. Many cigarette companies are upset with these new requirements and are intending to fight them. The manufactures are claiming that the FDA is "infringing the companies' property and free-speech rights." By 2012, every cigarette manufacturer will be required to print the new warning labels on every single cigarette pack. The information in this article will fit nicely within my research paper.

Harris, G. (2010, November 10). F. D. A. unveils proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette
     packs. New York Times. Retrieved from

American Council on Science and Health

In the United States, "smoking is the leading cause of preventable death."  There are six other major causes of death in the U.S.  They are alcohol abuse, drug abuse, AIDS, car crashes, homicide and suicide.  If you combine all six of these causes, they "account for only half as many deaths each year as smoking does."  As Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland said, " It is rare- if not impossible- to find examples in history that match tobacco's programmed trail of death and destruction.  I use the word programmed carefully.  A cigarette is the only consumer product which when used as directed kills its consumer."  From 1900 to 2000, smoking has killed more than 100 million people.  There are good statistics in this source.  I will most likely use it in my paper.

American Council on Science and Health. (2003). Cigarette smoking: A public health disaster. In    
           Cigarettes: What the warning label doesn't tell you. Retrieved from      

Lessons From Tobacco Control

In 1957, the first bill involving cigarette pack labels is introduced to Congress.  The label said, "Warning: Prolonged use of this product may result in cancer, in lung, heart and circulatory ailments, and in other diseases."  In 1965, the Surgeon General's Warning was put on cigarette packs.  In 1970, Congress put a stronger health warning on cigarette packs and banned cigarette advertising on television and radio.  There are four current U.S. warning labels.  First, "Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy."  Second, "Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health."  Penultimately, "Smoking by Pregnant Women May Result in Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, and Low Birth Weight."  Lastly, "Cigarette Smoke Contains Carbon Monoxide."  Cigarette warning labels that are most effective are prominent, novel, "graphic", comprehensive and relevant.  An unintended consequence of warning labels is that they protect industry, not consumers.  This source has good information so I will use it in my final paper.

Center for Tobacco Policy Research. (2007). Do warning labels work? Lessons from tobacco 
     control. Retrieved from

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

World Health Organization

"Up to half of all tobacco users will die from a tobacco-related disease."  The World Health Organization came up with MPOWER.  M stands for "Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies."  P stands for "Protect people from tobacco smoke."  O stands for "Offer help to quit tobacco use."  W stands for "Warn about the dangers of tobacco."  E stands for "Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship."  R stands for "Raise taxes on tobacco."  "Tobacco continues to kill nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers."  Showing pictures, not only words on cigarette boxes and by publicizing the ill effects of tobacco use, people are less likely to smoke.  There is a plethora of information in this report.  I will definitely use this as a source in my paper and I'll probably use it in the statistics sheet and public service announcement.

World Health Organization. (2011). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011: Warning 
     about the dangers of tobacco. Retrieved from

Cigarette Advertising

The current cigarette warning label controversy started with the passage of the FDA Tobacco Regulation Bill.  This bill gives the FDA an enormous amount of power over the tobacco industry.  The FDA can control "product ingredients, overrule new products and eliminate potentially misleading labels."  The first tobacco advertisement in the United States was in New York in 1789.  The U.S. Surgeon General, Luther Terry, released his Advisory Committee Report on Smoking and Health in 1964.  This was the first step to controlling or at least limiting the tobacco companies power.  Some of the new restrictions of the bill are that tobacco companies cannot advertise within 1,000 feet of schools and playgrounds, warning labels can cover 50% of the cigarette box and tobacco companies can no longer produce sweetened and spiced-flavored cigarettes.  I may use this article as a source, especially if I discuss the origins of the cigarette warning label controversy.

James, R. (2009, June 15). Time. Retrieved from,9171,1905530,00.html

Graphic cigarette labels, will they work?

The FDA said that it will begin requiring tobacco marketers to cover the top half of cigarette boxes and 20% of tobacco advertisements with nine graphic images.  This is the biggest anti-tobacco effort since 1965.  The goal is to stop the nation's 43 million smokers from smoking and to prevent others, especially teens from starting.  "These labels are frank, honest and powerful depictions of the health risks of smoking," said Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius.  "With these warnings, every person who picks up a pack of cigarettes is going to know exactly what risk they're taking."  Cigarette consumption has remained at about 21% since 2003.  In 2009, 23.5% of men and 17.9% of women smoke.  In 2009, 25.2% of twelfth graders smoked.  Not everyone thinks that the labels will work.  Some people believe that the labels will affect children more than adults, others are indifferent and others think that it won't make a difference at all, that it is in fact discrimination.  There are some good statistics in this article, I definitely think that I will use this article as a source in my paper.

Strauss, G. (2011, June 22). Graphic cigarette labels, will they work. USA Today. Retrieved from


FDA Appeals Block on Cigarette Warning Labels

The District Judge Richard Leon order that blocked cigarette graphic warning labels is being appealed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.  Not only is the FDA putting graphics on the cigarette boxes, they are also writing short facts, such as "cigarettes cause cancer."  The United States was the first country to require health warnings on tobacco products.  However, according to Dr. Eden Evins, countries such as Canada and Australia make the U.S. cigarette warning labels seem tame.  Evins said " in every two smokers will die from smoke-related illnesses."  I will use some of the information from this article in my research paper.

Salahi, L. (2011, November 30). FDA appeals block on cigarette warning labels. ABC News. 
     Retrieved from